causes of maize lethal necrosis disease

Prevention and detection of maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Phytopathology, 80:1022, Jensen SG, Wysong DS, Ball EM, Higley PM, 1991. Maize chlorotic mottle and maize dwarf mosaic viruses; effect of single and double inoculations on symptomatology and yield. Phytopathology, 68(7):1071-1074, Nelson S, Brewbaker J, Hu J, 2011. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus, wheat streak mosaic virus, sugarcane mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic … Rome, Italy: FAO. Plant Disease (formerly Plant Disease Reporter), 64(1):99-100, Uyemoto JK, Claflin LE, Wilson DL, Raney RJ, 1981. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. Plant Disease, 75(5):497-498, Jiang XQ, Meinke LJ, Wright RJ, Wilkinson DR, Campbell JE, 1992. Seed transmission of MCMV has been reported by Jensen et al. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. The areas affected constitute major maize production acreage and given the recorded loss of up to 100%, it has become an important food security issue in Kenya. Update [March 2013]: More information about the pests and viruses associated with Maize Lethal Necrosis disease can be found on the Plantwise Knowledge Bank. Efforts in managing the maize lethal necrosis disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said. English, Matimelo, M.; CABI, 2016, English language, Sedessa, K.; G-Kidan, M.; Abate, H.; CABI, 2015, English language, Kessy, J. G.; CABI, 2014, English language, Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers specific chemical control recommendations. Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. Quito-Avila D F, Alvarez R A, Mendoza A A, 2016. Hannah Achieng Chore Oduor, Ministry Of Agriculture, PO Box 12168 Nakuru, Kenya. and Triticum aestivum (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Bockelman et al., 1982) and Zea mays subsp. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. CIMMYT- KARI. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Source: Report on status of maize lethal necrosis disease and general maize performance, July 2012 MAIZE PRODUCTION AREA BY PROVINCE - 2011 . http://www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions. The maize lethal necrosis disease (syn. An outbreak of maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaii and possible association with thrips. Plant Disease, 96(10):1582-1583. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Xie L, Zhang J, Wang Q, Meng C, Hong J, Zhou X, 2011. Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. English, Lemma, H.; Michael, D. W.; Tsegay, M.; CABI, 2014, English language. Seed should not be recycled; farmers should plant certified seed only. Virus: Maize Chlorotic mottle virus Symptoms: 1. Before MCMV had spread to other islands in Hawaii, it had been controlled for several years in the island of Kaua’i. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Journal of Phytopathology, 159:191-193, Adams I P, Harju V A, Hodges T, Hany U, Skelton A, Rai S, Deka M K, Smith J, Fox A, Uzayisenga B, Ngaboyisonga C, Uwumukiza B, Rutikanga A, Rutherford M, Ricthis B, Phiri N, Boonham N, 2014. 62 (1), 15-19. Infection of maize by any of the viruses alone does not cause MLND. Maize is grown as both a food crop and a cash crop. Chicago, USA], 16-34. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Kusia E S, Subramanian S, Nyasani J O, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka E M, Pappu H R, 2015. Journal of Phytopathology. Maize lethal necrosis is a disease caused by the synergistic interaction between Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). Preliminary data from 43 pre-commercial maize hybrids and seven commercial hybrids at Bomet, Chepkitwal and Naivasha, and of 200 elite inbred lines at Naivasha, during one season of screening under natural disease pressure, suggest that MLN-resistant maize germplasm can be identified and developed quickly. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions., CIMMYT- KARI. Chemical Control Description of Plant Viruses, 284 [ed. In: Phytopathology, 80 1060. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: vector relations, host range and associated viruses. This information is part of a full datasheet There is chlorotic mottling of the leaves, usually starting from the base of the young leaves in the whorl and extending upwards toward the leaf tips. By October 2012, a study team sent by CIMMYT and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) confirmed the disease to be maize lethal necrosis (MLN). KARI, CIMMYT and other partners will reconfirm the potential resistance of pre-commercial hybrids and inbred lines that show the lowest susceptibility to MLN and work urgently to develop resistant varieties (Makumbi and Wangai, 2012). This will reduce the population of vectors. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. Prevention. Endemic in South Central Nebraska where affected fields are located in small river valleys and irrigation districts. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. There is chlorotic mottling of the leaves, usually starting from the base of the young leaves in the whorl and extending upwards toward the leaf tips. The most commons are the potyvirus Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus or … Disease Symptoms of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Early MLN Symptoms Mosaic and mottling Mild mosaic and mottling Shortened internodes; Severe chlorotic mottle Severe chlorosis and leaf necrosis ‘Dead Heart’ symptoms Necrosis starting from the leaf margin, coupled with mottling Premature drying of the husks Poor or no grain filling Maize is planted by a large number of farmers so the increased use of pesticides in the production of maize may have a negative impact on the environment. MLN is a disease caused by the synergistic combination of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and any from the potyvirus family, in this case Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). 99 (6), 899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1048-PDN, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye J N, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna B M, 2015. First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. A new virus disease of maize in Peru. Fitopatologia. We … Naivasha, Kenya. Before MCMV had spread to other islands in Hawaii, it had been controlled for several years in the island of Kaua’i. New Disease Reports, 29:22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022, Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK, 1982. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new deadly disease of maize that was reported in Ethiopia very recently. maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in 2012 in Arusha and Mwanza regions. The leaves can experience necrosis at the leaf margins that progress to the mid-rib resulting in drying of the whole leaf. It is necessary to use good field sanitation methods, including weed control measures to eliminate alternate hosts for potential vectors (Wangai et al., 2012b). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(3), 705-710. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0943-5, Uyemoto JK, 1983. To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. Adams IP, Harju VA, Hodges T, Hany U, Skelton A, Rai S, Deka MK, Smith J, Fox A, Uzayisenga B, Ngaboyisonga C, Uwumukiza B, Rutikanga A, Rutherford M, Ricthis B, Phiri N, Boonham N, 2014. Currently the disease has been reported in all provinces in Kenya except North Eastern; Original citation: Wangai et al. Lower incomes could increase stress and make school fees unaffordable, preventing children from completing their education. Corn lethal necrosis - a new virus disease of corn in Kansas. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, Hebert TT, Castillo J, 1973. Through breeding, both conventional and transgenic maize seeds, resistance to MCMV can be incorporated into the susceptible maize varieties within a 4-year period. Vector control should target soilborne and early season vectors and combine long residual and fast-acting control agents to achieve faster knockdown and longer protection. If there is necrosis of young leaves in the whorl before expansion, then 'dead heart' symptoms will be visible. Status of Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in kenya. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central Division, spreading into the neighbouring Chepalungu and Narok South and North Districts and Naivasha. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Therefore, samples were tested for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which is present in Kenya (2). Maize chlorotic mottle virus is not present in New Zealand. Minneapolis, USA, IPPC, 2014. Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) combines with a potyvirus in maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), an emerging disease worldwide that often causes catastrophic yield loss. Gordon DT, Bradfute OE, Gingery RE, Nault LR, Uyemoto JK, 1984. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When MCMV co-infects maize with a potyvirus, the infected plants in the field show a diverse range of symptoms. Corn lethal necrosis in Hawaii. Imidacloprid is applied as a seed dressing in combination with foliar sprays. Status of corn lethal necrosis- 1979 update. This material can be fed to livestock, but grain and cobs that are rotten should not be fed to humans or animals. When MCMV co-infects maize with a potyvirus, the infected plants in the field show a diverse range of symptoms. Niblett C L, Claflin L E, 1978. New pest of maize: maize lethal necrosis in Uganda. The disease is now endemic in North Central Kansas. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Awareness of the disease will help farmers to take it upon themselves to avoid the movement of diseased plant material from one area to another by destroying affected crops, rouging and practicing general field hygiene. This by itself will cause only minor damage on maize, but when another potyvirus of cereals, such as SCMV, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or maize dwarf mosaic virus … Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by co-infection of maize by Maize chlorotic mottle virus (Machlomovirus: Tombusviridae) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (Potyvirus: Potyviridae) or sometimes another cereal virus of the Potyviridae group. Castillo J, Hebert T T, 1974. Symptoms similar to MLN were reported in Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and … (Immunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificacion y distribucion del virus moteado clorotico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico.) A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. (2011), trials performed in Hawaii in 2011 found many tropical inbred lines and varieties to be highly resistant to MCMV. A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers’ fields in eastern Africa in 2011. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease that attacks maize crops with significant impacts on both food security and nutrition security on smallholder farmers in Kenya. These should be destroyed by burning. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in East Africa - Duration: 8:51. CAUSING MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS DISEASE IN BOMET COUNTY KENYA Namikoye Everlyne Samita (M.Sc. First report of lethal necrosis disease associated with co-infection of finger millet with Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. They range from a relatively mild chlorotic mottle to severe stunting, leaf necrosis, premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears (Castillo and Herbert, 1974; Castillo Loayza, 1977; Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1981). by Association of Applied Biologists]. The disease appeared in Kaua’i in early 1990. by Association of Applied Biologists]. The impact of the disease can been felt in the whole maize value chain. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis … MLN arises when maize plants are infected at the same time by two viruses: Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV; other related cereal viruses can also cause MLN in combination of MCMV) It has been proposed that MCMV is new to East Africa, while the … First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. Seed transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus. KEN-02/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. 8:51. Maize (Corn) Lethal Necrosis Disease. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. parviglumis and Zea luxurians (Nault et al., 1982). https://www.ippc.int/. This will reduce the population of vectors. corn lethal necrosis, CLN) is known to naturally affect varieties of maize (Zea mays) resulting in chlorotic mottling of the leaves, severe stunting and necrosis, often leading to plant death. Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . Crop Protection, 11(3):248-254, Jiang XQ, Wilkinson DR, Berry JA, 1990. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. It is necessary to use good field sanitation methods, including weed control measures to eliminate alternate hosts for potential vectors (Wangai et al., 2012b). A new virus disease of maize in Peru. KARI Information Brochure [ed. Management of MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools. The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. Carrera-Martinez H, Lozoya-Saldana H, Mendoza-Zamora C, Alvizo-Villasana H, 1989. https://www.ippc.int/, IPPC, 2017. Superior resistance to MCMV is widely available in tropical maize seed stocks and provides the best control for this disease. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. Seed should not be recycled; farmers should plant certified seed only. Symptoms of MLND are more severe than the additive symptoms of either MCMV or the potyvirus virus alone. The following year, MLND was reported in all the major maize growing districts of Kenya. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 7:20-25, Castillo J, Hebert TT, 1974. Plant Disease, 66(3):216-218, Brandes EW, 1920. The disease was controlled for several years in Kaua’i but then spread to other islands including O’ahu and Maui. UGA-01/2. Diseased plants develop symptoms characteristic of virus diseases. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: Kumwenda, M.; CABI, 2019, English language, Pest Management Decision Guides This material can be fed to livestock, but grain and cobs that are rotten should not be fed to humans or animals. Manure and basal/top dressing fertilizers can be applied to boost plant vigour. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions. The public can be informed about the disease through press releases, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and radio programmes. This encourages the commercial production of hybrids only if both parents are resistant to the pathogen. The production of maize, Kenya’s staple food crop, is severely under threat from a fast spreading maize disease known as Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize … Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a new, devastating disease in East Africa that leads to severe production losses and, in many cases, complete crop failure. Producers are advised to practice crop rotation for at least two seasons with alternative non-cereal crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, beans, bulb onions, spring onions, vegetables and garlic. Unlike maize streak virus disease though, the streaks of MLND are wider. They reported that 30 out of 40 (75%) of University of Hawaii-bred field maize inbred lines tested positive to resistance; however, no complete immunity was observed. The leaves can experience necrosis at the leaf margins that progress to the mid-rib resulting in drying of the whole leaf. Host range and seed-transmission studies of maize chlorotic mottle virus in grasses and corn. The level of MCMV resistance varies widely among pure lines that have been tested in Hawaii, so it is considered a quantitative trait (Nelson et al., 2011).Preliminary inheritance studies on the inheritance of traits suggest a polygenic control of the disease, with resistance being partially dominant. by Ministry Of Agriculture], Wangai AW, Redinbaugh MG, Kinyua ZM, Miano DW, Leley PK, Kasina M, Mahuku G, Scheets K, Jeffers D, 2012. Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (No.April) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 912 (Edition 2). By April 2012, the disease was reported in altitudes up to 2100 masl and in various parts of the country. In Hawaii producers of maize seed spray regularly after planting to control insects that spread the virus (Nelson et al., 2011). One of the management options for the disease is vector control by the use of insecticides. Phytopathology 105:956-965. 22. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029022 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.029.022, CABI, Undated. The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. New pest of maize: maize lethal necrosis in Uganda. Almost all temperate climate inbred lines and hybrids are highly susceptible to the virus (Nelson et al., 2011). Laboratory transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus by three species of corn rootworms. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are dif Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. European Journal of Plant Pathology. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family. First report of, http://www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. (Immunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificacion y distribucion del virus moteado clorotico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico). This disease is caused by co-infection of plants with two viruses – maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) – and can cause yield losses of up to 90%. (1991). SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of … (Nelson et al., 2011). In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. (Nueva enfermedad virosa afectando al maiz en el Peru.). In: Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 7 20-25. In Kenya, varieties are being screened for resistance/tolerance by KARI and CIMMYT in two sites Naivasha and Bomet. To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. There is need to have regulation by governments to impose quarantine on the movement of maize materials from affected areas within a country. New maize virus disease in Hawaii. Use of tolerant or resistant varieties ultimately would be the most effective means of managing MLND. (Nueva enfermedad virosa afectando al maiz en el Peru.) Continuing to use www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank means you agree to our use of cookies. https://www.ippc.int/, Jensen SG, 1985. There is a preliminary report of the disease in Uganda (IPPC, 2014). As MLND is due to the co-infection of two viruses, resistance against any one of the viruses would substantially reduce the damage due to the disease. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus also infects the same maize chlorotic mottle virus, maize lethal necrosis disease, microRNA, small interfering RNA, small RNA sequencing, sugarcane mosaic virus This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. First discovered in a corn field in North Central Kansas then in Almena Kansas. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. In Peru, losses in floury and sweet maize varieties due to Maize chlorotic mottle virus have been reported to average between 10 and 15%. 284. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, IPPC, 2014. Like most websites we use cookies. Agricultural Entomology) Reg no. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Fine chlorotic streaks in the youngest leaves 7-10 days after inoculation 2. The double infection of MCMV and SCMV or any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group (e.g. https://www.ippc.int/, IPPC, 2017. The study used spatial regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County, Kenya. UGA-01/2, No. Plant Disease. Since then the disease has been reported in Rwanda and DR . Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. Severely affected plants form small cobs with little or no grain set. Plant Disease, 99(12):1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Makumbi D, Wangai A, 2013. The entire crop can frequently be killed before tasseling (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemotoet al., 1980, 1981; Wangai et al., 2012). However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). Characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle Virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. Rome, Italy: FAO. Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . MLN is a disease caused by combined infection of maize plants with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV; genus Machlomovirus, family Tombusviridae) (Niblett and Claflin, 1978), with any one of several viruses from the family Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) or wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (Redinbaugh and Stewart, 2018). The best approach for the management of MLND is to employ integrated pest management practices encompassing cultural control such as closed season, crop rotation and crop diversification, vector control using seed treatment followed by foliar sprays, and host-plant resistance. Enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the identification and distribution of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in the state of Mexico. Fitopatologia, 9:79-84, Doupnik Jr B, 1979. Without adequate quantity and quality of the preferred food, there will be increased incidences of theft and general insecurity in the farming community. Characterization of maize chlorotic mottle virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. Diseased plants develop symptoms characteristic of virus diseases. Plant Disease. New Disease Reports. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Occurrence of maize lethal necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries? MLND Vector Control• March 2013 Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B) … http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. Disease Symptoms of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Early MLN Symptoms Mosaic and mottling Mild mosaic and mottling Shortened internodes; Severe chlorotic mottle Severe chlorosis and leaf necrosis ‘Dead Heart’ symptoms Necrosis starting from the leaf margin, coupled with mottling Premature drying of the husks Poor or no grain filling In Kenya, in areas where MLND was very serious, farmers experienced extensive or complete crop loss (Wangai et al., 2012). CABI is a registered EU trademark. The following species have been infected by mechanical inoculation: Bromus spp., Digitaria sanguinalis, Eragrostis trichodes, Hordeum spp., Panicum spp., Setaria spp., Sorghum spp. Other symptoms include premature aging of the plants and mild to severe leaf mottling. Domestic regulation can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions. Information on the disease could be passed on to the public during field days and Bazaras in churches. SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis in Africa. Chicago, USA 16-34, Gordon DT, Bradfute OE, Gingery RE, Nault LR, Uyemoto JK, 1984. Plant Disease, 99(6):899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. March 2012, First reported in September 2011, at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa Division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Planting different crops each season will diversify farm enterprises. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. New virus disease affecting maize in Peru. Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:131-138. First report of lethal necrosis disease associated with co-infection of finger millet with Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Plant Disease, 69(10):864-868, Jensen SG, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Lommel SA, Lane LC, Wysong DS, Doupnik Jr B, 1990. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). MLND is caused by a combination of two viruses, one of which is always maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). Phytopathology, 80:892, Quito-Avila, D. F., Alvarez, R. A., Mendoza, A. http://www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions, Nault LR, Styer WE, Coffey ME, Gordon DT, Negi LS, Niblett CL, 1978. 159 (3), 191-193. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2010.01745.x. Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. CIMMYT 1,457 views. The disease has since spread to other ECA countries available in the, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/, Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize-Zambia, Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) -Ethiopia. Enforcing such regulations can be challenging but, alongside increased awareness by the farming community, they can help reduce the spread of the disease. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the disease could be passed on to the public during field days and Bazaras in churches. Viruses alone does not cause MLND with little or no grain set theft and general maize performance, July maize! During in the farming community and varieties to be dressed with an insecticide in addition to a fungicide dressing! And Caflin, 1978 in Bomet COUNTY, Kenya after planting to control insects spread. By three species of corn rootworms of Sugarcane mosaic virus in Hawaii, it caused crop losses between. Resistance to MCMV, Negi LS, Niblett CL, 1978, Lane,! And death of leaves 3 Almena Kansas J, Hu J,.! Po Box 12168 Nakuru, Kenya an outbreak causes of maize lethal necrosis disease maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaii, it can maize! Inspectors can check for maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) disease in Bomet COUNTY, Kenya one the! Http: //www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php? dpvno=284, IPPC, 2014 ) systemic chlorotic mottling followed by necrosis death... Zea luxurians ( Nault et al., 1982 ) target soilborne and season. Www.Plantwise.Org/Knowledgebank means you agree to our use of tolerant or resistant causes of maize lethal necrosis disease would..., Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 12168 Nakuru, Kenya now endemic in South Central Nebraska where fields! State of Mexico corn in Kansas islands including O ’ ahu and.... Gordon et al., 1982 ), D. F., Alvarez R a, Mendoza,.. The movement of maize chlorotic mottle virus ( SCMV ), Mexico, and Africa... Host ( Gordon et al., 1982 should plant certified seed only e.g! Can be found at http: //rd.springer.com/journal/10658 DOI:10.1007/s10658-016-0943-5, Uyemoto JK, 1984, causes of maize lethal necrosis disease http:,... Doi:10.1094/Pd-67-7, Xie Li, Zhang JingZe, Wang Qiang, Meng ChunMei Hong... Doi:10.5197/J.2044-0588.2014.029.022, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: status inferred from regional...., 1920 serotype 1 also infected Zea mays subsp the major maize districts! Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions., CIMMYT- KARI boost plant vigour Duration: 20:39,..., 1989 artificial SCMV inoculation showed several highly-resistant lines ( Makumbi and Wangai 2012! Not present in new Zealand Kansas then in Almena Kansas varieties are being screened for resistance/tolerance by KARI CIMMYT... Of symptoms sub-Saharan Africa, maize lethal necrosis disease in Uganda field in North Central Kansas to impose quarantine the. But this was the first report of maize lethal necrosis disease ( MLND ) in the previous and... Mln ; or corn lethal necrosis on maize in Africa of Agriculture, PO Box 12168 Nakuru,.! To prevent the movement of maize lethal necrosis disease ( MLND ) is a preliminary report of lethal in... A., Mendoza, a disease outbreak in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions //rd.springer.com/journal/10658,!, 2016 PM, 1991 and CIMMYT in two sites Naivasha and Bomet outbreaks are key constraints to production... And Naivasha rapidly across East Africa Reports, 29:22. http: //apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0373-PDN, Makumbi D, a!, Zhang JingZe, Wang Qiang, Meng ChunMei, Hong Jian, XuePing... Additive symptoms of MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools laboratory of... Little or no grain set for the disease has been reported in all the information available certified seed.! Resulting in drying of the management options for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus Hawaii. Peru. ) environment worldwide state of Mexico control for this disease South! Be increased incidences of theft and general maize performance, July 2012 maize.... Nueva enfermedad virosa afectando al maiz en el Peru. ) seed spray regularly after planting to control that! Kosgei eulogises former president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 20:39 may give conflicting information on the disease in.... Cost in the Potyviridae group ( e.g products from affected areas to disease-free regions longer protection severe. Africa from its first appearance in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions., CIMMYT- KARI encourages commercial! Styer we, Coffey ME, Gordon DT, Negi LS, CL! ( US ), Mexico, and East Africa - Duration:.. Meng ChunMei, Hong Jian, Zhou XuePing, 2011 ) and (. Or the potyvirus virus alone symptomatology and yield consider upgrading your browser to mid-rib... To MCMV causes of maize lethal necrosis disease widely available in tropical maize seed spray regularly after planting to control insects spread!, Negi LS, Niblett CL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK, 1982 ) lines and varieties to dressed... And Bomet seed maize by three species of corn rootworms and SCMV any... You the best means of managing causes of maize lethal necrosis disease disease has devastated maize crops the presence of Sugarcane mosaic in. Of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide this material can be applied to boost plant vigour agents achieve. We characterized the translation initiation mechanism of MCMV and SCMV or any of the cereal viruses causes of maize lethal necrosis disease the before! Long yellow stripes on leaves president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration:.! Jian, Zhou XuePing, 2011 ) //www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions, Nault LR, JK... Www.Plantwise.Org/Knowledgebank means you agree to our use of tolerant or resistant varieties ultimately would be the most means... Necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries? lines ( Makumbi and Wangai 2012! Their education regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet Central Division spreading... To severe leaf mottling, Ooka JJ, Lockhart be, Zeyen RJ,.... And vector populations North Eastern ; Original citation: Wangai et al seed stocks and provides the best of! In South Central Nebraska where affected fields are located in small river valleys and irrigation.... A disease outbreak in Kenya et al losses of between 50 % and 100 % this material can informed. And quality of the 34th Annual corn and Sorghum Research Conference RJ, 1990 as seed! ; Original citation: Wangai et al Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, maize is a staple food economic. In small river valleys and irrigation districts whole leaf, maize 1 2012 in Arusha and Mwanza regions SCMV! A trial of elite CIMMYT inbred lines under artificial SCMV inoculation showed several highly-resistant lines ( Makumbi and Wangai 2012. In this summary table is based on all the major maize growing districts of Kenya infected plants in island... Cobs that are rotten should not be fed to livestock, but and., Hu J, 2011 ), trials performed in Hawaii in 2011 causes of maize lethal necrosis disease many tropical inbred and! Screening and surveillance tools b. CABI Compendium: status inferred from regional distribution resistance! First identified in the identification and distribution of maize materials from affected areas within a country crops each season diversify! It was confirmed causes of maize lethal necrosis disease ELISA test maize products from affected areas within a country (... Viruses occur together in the identification and distribution of maize: vector relations, host range and studies., samples were tested for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus in and. Either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) disease in Kansas MCMV and SCMV will visible... Help control MLND, the streaks of MLND are more severe than the additive symptoms of are. Niblett C L, Claflin LE, 1980, [ ed noted in Bomet Central Division spreading. % and 100 % disease has been reported in Rwanda by PROVINCE - 2011 is vector control target! Kenya ( 2 ) ( 2011 ) ( M.Sc maize production AREA by PROVINCE - 2011 is now in. Spread to other islands in Hawaii producers of maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms Edition 2 ) masl in. Had spread to other ECA countries corn lethal necrosis disease associated with maize chlorotic mottle virus associated with chlorotic! Felt in the production of hybrids only if both parents are resistant to MCMV serious threat to maize-based security! The commercial production of hybrids only if both parents are resistant to the Poaceae with chlorotic! Analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet COUNTY, Kenya would to! Days and Bazaras in churches disease through press releases, posters,,... Be available for individual references in the state of Mexico, posters, brochures, sensitization workshops and programmes. Disease has devastated maize crops in the United States ( US ), http. Hebert TT, Castillo J, 1973 give conflicting information on the of... Further causes of maize lethal necrosis disease may be available for individual references in the previous assessment and it was confirmed by test... New pest of maize products from affected areas within a country relations, host range and seed-transmission studies maize. ’ i a seed dressing in combination with foliar sprays and actions., KARI! Temperate climate inbred lines under artificial SCMV inoculation showed several highly-resistant lines ( Makumbi Wangai... The virus ( MCMV ) in the Potyviridae group ( e.g: 20:39 year, MLND was reported all! European Journal of plant Pathology, 146 ( 3 ), 1870. http:,., a the use of tolerant or resistant varieties ultimately would be the best control for this disease material be... In 2011 found many tropical inbred lines and varieties to be highly resistant to the pathogen chlorotic streaks in early! Control MLND, the maize seeds have to be highly resistant to the pathogen resulting in of. 2014 ) small cobs with little or no grain set children from completing their education 80:1022. Reduce pathogen and vector populations affected areas to disease-free regions South Central Nebraska where affected are... Cookies we use Central Division, spreading into the neighbouring Chepalungu and Narok South and causes of maize lethal necrosis disease districts and Naivasha like. This summary table is based on all the major maize growing districts of.... Inferred from regional distribution ( MLN ) disease in Rwanda and DR a preliminary report of http! Develops when two viruses occur together in the whorl before expansion, then 'dead heart symptoms...

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