Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The eroded material supplies material to the littoral budget minimising the general erosion along the entire section of shoreline. Coastal dunes dominated by pingao at Parengarenga Harbour, Northland. During storm surge events, the foot of the dunes can be eroded but the dunes act as a very flexible buffer zone, which protects the hinterland from erosion and flooding. Restoration Ecology 4 (4): 334-345. One is that Klein Slangkop is a relatively new estate (development starting in the late 1990s) and as such planning should have taken the earlier mistakes of Hout Bay into account as well as affording the sensitive nature of such a region a higher precedence. This project keeps the environment stable, which means it continues to support the economy in a variety of ways. Report PO 4501955067. Yes, it has “Dune Restoration” signs every few hundred metres but it has already been established that this fence design cannot restore a dune system, especially when, after a few good winter storms the sea washes the infrastructure away. Figure 1: Alexandria Dune Field (forming part of the Woody Cape Section of the Addo Elephant National Park) is a stunning example of a coastal dune field (Makabongwe Sigqala), Figure 2: Vegetation found in the dune slacks of the Alexandria Dune Field (Makabongwe Sigqala). SLOSS CR, SHEPHERD M & HESP P. 2012b. Pinnacle Port, FL knows all too well the impact of an incomplete beach renourishment project. It becomes a case, not of dune restoration but rather one of sand stabilisation; the glaring difference being the priorities of the urban environment being placed ahead of the integrity of a functioning ecosystem. Once you start adding new sand, an interruption occurs to the system. Thank uou for your research work. The transplant is completed during the fall months when the Marram grass is dormant. For a beach replenishment project to be successful, it must use sand that is compatible with what is currently at the beach. Beach renourishment will supply new sand to the beach, but it won’t solve the erosion problem. 1996). Property owners at beach locations don’t need to worry as much about the weather report. You must then deposit the sand on the beach, then move it to an appropriate location. Feb 12, 2018 Feb 19, 2018 by Brandon Gaille. For a business which bases its livelihood on the shoreline for its business, a prolonged restriction could lead to a potential bankruptcy. 2. Act No. In other words, what are the goals for this restoration project? 8. This array of geomorphological features, environmental heterogeneity and species variability contribute to the high ecological diversity that characterises coastal dunes but in spite of their ecological significance, many of these systems have already been substantially impacted and severely degraded through human activities (Martínez & Psuty 2008). 10. The remnants of the Klein Slangkop dune restoration efforts, The LongBeach netting did not withstand the storm and now adds to marine debris, Infrastructure at Klein Slangkop now litters the beach, Remnants of the Klein Slangkop Dune Restoration Fence, Water is channelled through the landscaped pathway and into the car-park behind the dunes, Water channelled along to boardwalks at Klein Slangkop (Julie Phillips 2017). Since the first project, which added over two miles of beach space, various projects have helped to protect Brighton Beach and other areas to create the foundation of a permanent protection area. It’s crazy when you start to think about it! 24 of 2008: Section 1, Sub-Section 15.2 and Section 2, Sub-Section 16-17. As the sand is drawn away from the shore, new ecosystems develop near the edge of the shore. Even though there will be future benefits for the business to enjoy, without revenues, it may not survive until the new beach is opened. 2008. A seasonal wetland in the dune slacks adds to the ecological importance of the area. The new sand is now an additional tourism opportunity to enjoy. RAMSARU R. 2011. When a beach is wider, it is usable by more people. The Geomorphic Changes to a Dune System in the Cape Peninsula: Fish Hoek – Noordhoek Dune Corridor. Dec 16, 2019 May 28, 2015 by Brandon Miller. Applying this concept to dune restoration begs the question of how far back one is to look for the ultimate naturally functional system and how that system is to be maintained in a severely transformed surrounding environment. Recent dune construction and restoration protecting the Bluewater Highway along Follet's Island, TX illustrates how dune restoration success is variable. Some Beach front condo owners argue that owners of inland property farther away from the beach should pay up to one third of the cost of replacing sand and rebuilding dunes. By adding new beach space, a community is adding new economic benefits which support everyone because the wages stay local. LOW AB & VAN EEDEN JD. Because sand dunes and beaches are extremely popular for outdoor recreation, the success of restoration and dune management depends a great deal on the information available and understanding of the public. Simply put, restoration efforts are aimed at inducing the transformation of the disturbed habitat in a predetermined direction (Saunders et al. The Reclamation of Derelict Land and the Ecology of Ecosystems (53-74) in Jordan WR, Gilpin ME & Aber JD (eds); Restoration Ecology: A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research. When beach renourishment occurs before too much damage occurs, it can protect the natural buffer already in place. Large storms, such as Hurricane Ivan in 2004, will also take large quantities of sand into deeper water, where it is no longer recoverable. Much smaller scale, of course, but now it’s obvious – the road and houses were built within the sand dune belt! It is a place where families head on warm days to enjoy swimming. 3. March 24, 2013 March 24, 2013 / By BrigantineNOW. Grassing of Hout Bay Denuded Sandy Bay. These beach renourishment pros and cons work hard to protect local ecosystems. Now apply those costs to each beach which requires renourishment. With unprecedented development occurring in the valley between 1989 and 2000, measures were put into place to prevent the accretion of sand on beachfront properties (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Dunes are just hills of sand at the back of the beach. German Shepherd Great Pyrenees Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know About the Germanees, German Shepherd Akita Corgi Mix: 26 Things Every Owner Should Know, Chihuahua German Shepherd Mix Guide: 25 Things to Know About a Chihuahua Shepherd, Alaskan Shepherd Guide: 29 Things Every Owner Should Know, Blue Heeler German Shepherd Mix: 26 Things Every Owner Should Know, German Shepherd Chow Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know Before Getting One, Bulldog Shih Tzu Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know About a Shitzu Bulldog, 500 Cutest Shih Tzu Names for a Boy or Girl Puppy Dog, 500 Most Unique Chihuahua Names for a Girl or Boy Dog, German Shepherd Beagle Mix: 27 Things Every Owner Should Know. The approaches to consider are either coral transplantation (growing corals and bringing them back to reefs where coral had died off) or artificial reefs. An Evaluation of Habitat Rehabilitation on Coastal Dune Forests in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. As a short-term disadvantage, however, the loss of a habitat may create devastating results for local life. Although seasonal renourishment projects are usually completed in under a month (and some in under a week), extensive projects may require 2+ years to complete. This structure reduces taxpayer costs while still encouraging people to come to the beach whenever they want. Figure 4: Dunes at the Hout Bay beach engulfing municipal infrastructure (Nick Weigl). Coastal Dunes: Geomorphology. It is a way for teens, residents, and even immigrants to find work when they need it. There are reduced sharps from rocks, driftwood, and litter which could impact the user experience. Each additional project comes with an added cost. http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/western-cape/r500k-a-year-spent-on-dump-site-2002283, http://www.iol.co.za/capetimes/grassing-of-hout-bay-denuded-sandy-bay-1548015, http://www.houtbayheritage.org.za/Hout-Bay-dune-management-report-Vol-2-final.pdf, Beach-cast Kelp Forms the Basis of a Thriving Community, Surviving the Vomit Comet – Life Aboard the RV Algoa, Follow Scientist in Limbo on WordPress.com, Exploring the Frozen Ocean of Terra Australis Incognita, The Urban Baboon – A Charismatic Primate under Threat, Nomadic Conservation: A South African Filmmaker’s Journey across the Seas to Inspire a Conservation Movement, From Cabo Talhado to Seal Mountain – Discovering the Robberg Magic. The climbing-falling dune system of the Valley has been irreversibly altered; the dunes of Fish Hoek Beach were trucked away in the 1920s, the marshlands (now known as the Lake Michelle development) have been reshaped and shrunk, the shifting sands of the corridor have been stabilised by invasive vegetation and obscured by an urban environment. points on the pros and cons of using the potential sources of sand investigated for use in dune creation and enhancement at Broad Beach. The correct size and material must be added, whether that is clay, silt, or sand, or the project to be successful. Last year (2016) saw the arrival of a fleet of mine trucks and diggers (Fig 7-9) that proceeded to remove the biological barriers, level the established dunes, translocate the sand to other parts of the area and install netting barriers which lasted about a week and a half before blowing over and littering the beach (Fig 10 & 11). Shorelines of stormwater ponds are prone to erosion because there are many forces working to undermine the stability of the bank. When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. Before the beach renourishment work occurred along Florida’s coastline, property owners were always listening to the local meteorologist to know when rain would be predicted. This wide, crescent-shaped beach is wedged in the midst of mountain peaks and is backed by rolling dunes, fringed by thriving indigenous vegetation. Marram grass. While the use of indigenous species may negate the aforementioned impacts, the synthetic stabilisation of large sand-drifts still results in not only the net loss of sand from beaches but localised changes, many as yet to be documented, in the geomorphological and ecological characteristics of such a sensitive and dynamic system. When new plants are added to the ecosystem, they help to stabilize the tidal flats. Gilgo Beach uses sand that was dredged from Fire Island Inlet to create the new beach area. The beach is always extended horizontally into the water to create a wider space, which drives life away from its established habitat. If the sediment is incompatible, then erosion issues may be enhanced. 6. This is when beach renourishment occurs. There needs to be a clear distinction between the terms “dune restoration” and “sand stabilisation” because it has become apparent that in the case of the coastal dune ecosystems of the Cape Peninsula, “dune restoration” is a misnomer. Figure 7: Mine trucks and excavators landscaping Witsand Beach, Figure 8: This process of excavation and relocation is to occur every year at Witsands, Figure 9: Large amounts of sand were translocated across the beach, Figure 10: Netting and posts at Witsand Beach, as well as exposed rubbish from the landfill site, Figure 11: The infrastructure did not withstand the first north-westerly winds, Figure 12: Timeline of the Witsands landscaping. So what’s the big deal? BAMFORD H. 2016. The second is that the estate was established in close proximity to the High-Water Mark (HWM) and, under the guise of dune restoration, fences and boardwalks have been constructed on coastal public property but for the exclusive use of estate home-owners (“No Access”, “Private” and “Residents Only” printed on the gates (Fig 14-17)). The seaward property boundary of this development falls approximately 30 m from the HWM, well within the Coastal Protection Zone. Managing Coastal Development in Rapidly Developing Areas: The Case of Umhlanga Rocks. Pros and cons of implementing natural waterfront defenses for climate change in Mid-Atlantic. It also works to prevent flooding issues which may have caused the erosion in the first place. The shocking truth however is lurking beneath the surface of the shifting white sands… until the mid-1980s, Witsands was used by the former Divisional Council of the Cape as a municipal landfill site and the rubbish still in-situ is between three and four metres deep. 5. 1996). Shifting the baseline to which the current status of the baitfish stocks is compared changes our perception, in this case drastically escalates the situation, and should transform how we assess the success of fishing quotas and equipment restrictions. The equipment required to bring the sand to the shore, along with the reinforcement structures that are added, can shut down miles of beach all at once. But, such as in Hout Bay, the encroachment of invasive vegetation and the expansion of urban development has severed the sediment linkage between Noordhoek and Fish Hoek beaches and therefore has altered and continues to alter the sediment dynamics and natural functioning of the entire corridor (Quick 2006). This implies emulating a defined undisturbed ecosystem but achieving only partial success (Bradshaw 1990; van Aarde et al. 7. Figure 13: Klein Slangkop Private Estate – Orange indicates property boundaries and black indicates the fence erected in 2015 (NGI), Figure 14: Private access point on coastal public property, Figure 15: Private boardwalks on coastal public property, Figure 16: Only “Dune Restoration” signs as a deterrent, Figure 17: Signs often just get washed into the ocean. BSc (Hons), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. To enhance the effectiveness of this work, other structures must be added to support the renourishment project. These beaches not only support our local economy and tourism, but they also help protect over $3.5 billion worth of shorefront property and provide critical … financial, environmental, etc.) planted on sand dunes stabilises the dunes and helps to trap sand to build them up. They’re not a good place to lay out a towel, put up an umbrella or park a car. The Klein Slangkop Private Estate (shown in part in Fig 13), situated on a headland protruding into the Atlantic Ocean south of Noordhoek Beach and backing on to land protected by Table Mountain National Parks (a subsidiary of SANParks), is the location of the third case study and one with two very clear distinctions. Cons: Will need constant maintenance. A “myriad of contradictions” is the best way to describe the Klein Slangkop, and in part the Longbeach, situation. Springer-Verlag: New York. The fundamental question to ask is; to what structure is this dune system expected to be restored? MARTÍNEZ ML & PSUTY NP. In 2015, the fence (wire and posts with cement foundations that are already being undermined by wave action (Fig 18 & 19)) surrounding the estate was moved and the boardwalks extended further seaward so that it presently stands at approximately 6 m (at its closest point) from the HWM. high use areas. It develops the foundation for a larger, permanent beach in the future. I would like to thank the awesome people who contributed photographs to this article; Makabongwe Sigqala (Alexandria Dune Field), Anthony Sivewright (Kommetjie), Janet Sivewright (Kommetjie), Megan Sivewright (Kommetjie) and Nick Weigl (Hout Bay). Dune restoration may also include establishing vegetation to hold the sand in place. SAUNDERS DA, HOBBS RJ & EHRLICH PR. Geomorphologist Peter Holmes (dune scientist) voiced his concern on the subject; “There are thresholds in geomorphology and when you pass these thresholds things can suddenly behave in a very different way. The dune restoration has been arguably the most successful of the plantings at Tavora and certainly, when viewed from Bobby’s Head, the most colourful. That means businesses located at the shore of more revenue earning opportunities available to them. Although there are coordinating protection structures that can help the beach, the nature of sand is that it will erode with any water movement. Beach renourishment requires dredging or material transportation. When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. There is a high energy cost to pay in addition to the capital cost. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/western-cape/r500k-a-year-spent-on-dump-site-2002283. Especially true when knowledge of the area prior to the disturbance event is limited. Change ). of keeping the roads These rules were not in place several years ago, which means sewer pipes, power lines, potable water, and other infrastructure items may be close to the shore. Crabs, lizards, sandpipers, and sea grape and dropseed plants make their habitat in the dunes, which also serve as nesting areas for the endangered hawksbill, green and leatherback sea turtles. The importance of the volume of dune material above the 100-year storm surge elevation should be obvious from the discussion of dune response and recovery presented above. To see the sprinklers running in a howling south-easter defies logic! Beaches are an effective buffer against the movement of the waves as they impact the shore. Adding sand to the beach does not solve the problem of erosion. One way that dunes can move is through saltation, where sand particles skip along the ground like a rock thrown across a pond might skip across the water's surface. (Photo: John Sawyer) Coastal dunes are commonly found immediately landward of a beach and are made up of large, linear accumulations of sand. Beach renourishment offers a meaningful solution for a shoreline which struggles against a strong tide. That protects the coastline from high levels of natural erosion by maintaining or improving the current slope of the land heading out into the water. Because of the cost and time involved in a replenishment project, it may not be suitable to save every beach using this method. Analysing three case studies in the Cape Peninsula it becomes clear that "Dune Restoration" is a pipe dream under current conditions and the term is rather used as a guise for personal gain. There are times when the beach will grow. NARRATOR: These beautiful coral reefs are in serious trouble. With no excessive urban sprawl encroaching on the immediate surrounding area, this little bay looks to be the epitome of a natural system retaining a high level of functionality. Pros and cons of implementing natural waterfront defenses for climate change in Mid-Atlantic ... dune restoration, and breakwaters. The synthetic stabilisation of coastal dunes in the Western Cape Province of South Africa dates back as far as 1845 with the introduction of Australian Acacia species, such as Acacia salinga (Port Jackson) and Acacia cyclops (rooikrans), to the area. When these situations occur, it may resolve an issue at one beach, but then it will cause a new problem at another location. As the tides move in and out, however, the sand of the beach also keeps moving. 1. Some beaches do not benefit as much from this type of project as others because of their location, the amount of submerged sand available, and other factors that may be present geographically. Natuurmonumenten aims at the restoration of more than 60 ha of grey dunes and white dunes and an increase of about 30 ha in the area of embryonic shifting dunes and humid dune … They says that property owners close to the beach still reap the benefits of higher property values. For structures that are close to the beach, an eroding shoreline means more sand cliffs by the water, less beach, and the threat of soil removal from the foundation of the building. MSc Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 3. Natural Flow. By reviewing the circumstances and taking past transgressions into account, it is clear that both the Hout Bay and Witsand situations are inherited problems with the authorities attempting to find a way to best manage a severely degraded and defunct system but with the urban aspect of the system being a priority. The first beach renourishment project in the United States was completed at Coney Island in 1923. So why is the fence actually there? The public does not have access to the beach during the renourishment project. Nature Education Knowledge 3 (10): 21. Renourishment can protect the public and private structures behind the beach. The entire removal, transportation, and finalization process creates costs which are not always calculated into the final figures of the project. 24 of 2008, Section 2 (16.1 (e))). Now that most projects are complete, the seawall is no longer seen as the last line of defense for the property. The photos below were supplied by Janet Sivewright, unless otherwise stated. Marine life is adaptive. . While removal of the landfill site is out of the question for the City, due to a R 40 million price tag, a more feasible and environmentally-friendly long-term solution needs to be found. Coastal development plays a considerable role in not only the destruction of the immediate surrounding environment but also in the disruption of sediment flow between beaches. After the storm, the city started a large renourishment project to add 3 million cubic yards of sand back to the beach along a 16-mile stretch. Why is irrigation being used to water plants adept at surviving in a harsh, water-scarce environment (Fig 28)? Success depends on the void to solid ratio of the fence, the availability of blown sand, the frequency of wave attack at the fence and the amount of vegetation available to stabilise the accumulated sand. 2. A Review of Coastal Dune Stabilisation in the Cape Province of South Africa. With a budget of R 500 000 per year, the City of Cape Town has managed the site for the past ten years employing methods, such as barriers of felled invasive vegetation and man-made channels, to re-establish the dunes, cover up the site and redirect the river around the waste (Bamford 2016). Why are non-biodegradable materials (Fig 24) being used in such a sensitive and exposed environment, especially when winter storms wash the infrastructure into the ocean contributing to marine debris (Fig 25-27)? BRADSHAW AD. A complex interaction between prevailing winds, sediment supply, moisture and vegetation content, and the geomorphology of the nearshore and beach environment determine the size and morphology of coastal dunes (Sloss et al. The mere presence of the trucks in such a sensitive environment calls into question the validity of the Conservancy and highlights the fact that covering up the landfill site takes precedence over ensuring the integrity of a naturally functioning system. My hypothesis is we could get more dunes forming along the road and what we are doing is recreating a dune field” (Gosling 2013). Over time, if tidal surges are repetitively strong, the shore ecosystem could eventually collapse. Situated on the western shores of the Cape Peninsula, Witsands forms part of the Soetwater-Witsand Coastal Conservancy (2009) and is home to the African black oystercatcher (Haematopus moquini) and the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis – Fig 6), both classed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. Figure 6: Cape clawless otter on Longbeach, Kommetjie. Deforestation is the practice of clearing a wide area of trees, so the land can be used for another purpose. Things that need to be considered when talking “beach jetties”. It becomes a payoff between restoring the dunes to a naturally functioning system within an area restricted and impacted by the urban environment and minimising the inconvenience that the shifting sands will have on this urban environment. Nature will adapt to the new circumstances over time. Shifting baselines, prevalent in the fishing industry, is an adjustment in the reference points (baselines) used to measure change in a system. GOSLING M. 2013. Enough erosion can cause a beach to eventually collapse. Figure 24: Non-biodegradable netting (Megan Sivewright), Figure 25: Fence posts washed out of the structure, Figure 26: More debris being added to the coastal environment, Figure 28: Irrigation of the dunes defies logic. Nature Conservation 3: The Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. The waves against the beach causes erosion to occur and sometimes more sand goes out to the water than is deposited by the incoming waves. The stabilisation and sand-trapping infrastructure put in place by the municipality has done just that; stabilised a mobile system and trapped large amounts of sediment form secondary dunes. It widens the beach to create more usage opportunities. I would like to also extend my gratitude to the Chief Directorate: National Geospatial Information within the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform for providing me with flight paths and aerial photographs, dating back to 1934, of the Cape Peninsula as well as maps and general development plans for Kommetjie and the Klein Slangkop Estate. Thanks Cathy! A successful project protects property values, encourages new business opportunities, and better public access to the shore. 1993; van Aarde et al. The expense of this issue is what becomes problematic for many communities. So why, if the system is no longer functional, is it imperative to “restore” a narrow fringe of dunes on a small headland, especially since they appear to have remained in the same state since the inception of the development of the valley? Seeds were initially sown directly into the sand but in 1875 this method was abandoned in favour of first covering the dunes with refuse, generated by the city’s inhabitants, in order to temporarily stabilise them before the seed-sowing commenced. Even during strong surges, the sediment reduces the risk of a beach structure suffering a catastrophic incident. I think my Dad will find this a fascinating read – I’ll take him a copy next time I’m there! What protection is provided is often confined to a small area. If a community allows their beach to be eroded away, then the numerous benefits it provides would disappear. This 100 m reserve does not however prohibit development entirely, it is merely a trigger for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Ramsaru 2011). During the storm and also during more normal events, sand will be transported inland, sometimes in connection with the formation of wind alleys in the dune row. Fuel charges, carbon releases, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may need to be addressed. The functioning of this system mirrored that of the Hout Bay/Sandy Bay system in that the prevailing south-easterly winds transported sand from one end of the corridor, replenishing the beach upwind. Investing in a beach renourishment project helps to protect these prior investments, allowing the community to benefit from their continued service. The physics behind it is quite complex and we don’t yet know what is happening there. not compacted or weedy). Advantages. Erosion is a natural part of the cycle of the beach. Westport residents voice pros and cons of Beach Avenue proposals ... a $120,000 state grant for dune restoration. Preference now is given to the use of indigenous species to stabilise shifting sands, although not without its own suite of detrimental consequences. There are economic benefits available when the project is finished. ... A wide range of grain sizes have been employed in beach and dune restoration projects around the world, ranging from very fine to small gravel (Nordstrom 2008). That disruption may continue with ongoing wave pattern changes or other changing shore life patterns which occur. Most communities today have building codes enforced which require new properties to be a minimum distance away from the shore. Brigantine Jetty. One cannot deny that economic development and tourism work together to support local economies. The Pros of Beach Renourishment 1. You can safely go sunbathing when the beach is present. After the storm, the damaged dune will gradually be built up ag… It may provide infrastructure benefits to the community. Most people don’t need to meet specific educational or work experience requirements to obtain employment in the tourism industry. 1993. Dune restoration, as the term suggests, is a reactive exercise because historically protection was not afforded to these environments and therefore did not form part of town planning practices. What’s so great about sand dunes? 2013. I find this lack of interest alarming as these sandy hillocks also act as a natural buffer at the ocean/continental interface, one of increasing importance when confronted with climate change and the subsequent rising of sea-levels. Management and Rehabilitation Plan for the Hout Bay Dunes. A suitable site must be found that is easy and safe to access, with permission from the landowner. Historically dune restoration measures on this stretch of beach rather took on the form of sand stabilisation, making use of beach-cast kelp (Fig 20) and barriers of felled invasive vegetation (Fig 21), but as recently as last month (April 2017) are now being replaced by the same non-biodegradable netting as can be found at Witsands. One such example would be Witsand Beach (Fig 5). The City of Cape Town is now spending R 19 million on the stabilisation and translocation of the accumulated sand; trucking 30 000 m3 from the secondary dunes in Hout Bay to replenish Sandy Bay, an endeavour likely to repeat itself every few years (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Are so high that they begin altering the wind regime off restoration of sand dunes pros and cons is. Shore, it may be difficult to find work when they come close to the shore, it a. Create potential issues which may need to be considered when talking “ beach jetties ” wind off! Be successful, it is wet and may have caused the erosion the... Rapidly Developing areas: the Reconstruction of Fragmented ecosystems be gentle and warm and the surface. Away more sand away high energy cost to pay in addition to the beach change! Gilgo beach uses sand that is why these beach renourishment occurs before too much damage occurs, it can unpredictable! 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